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2008 Dec 24 - Solar Power Plant: Alternative Sources Of Energy For Growing Cities

Alternative Power Plants

McCoy Alternative Power Reports tracks data about every electric power plant worldwide using alternative fuels. Founded in 2007 and sister company of McCoy Power Reports, McCoy Alternative Power Reports (MAPR) collects data about every alternative energy power plant in the world through information collected from trade publications, periodicals, press releases, and surveys submitted by equipment manufacturers.

Although we are currently focused on the wind energy database and reports, MAPR with the support of MPR, also offers reports for Hydro, Solar, Geothermal, Municipal Solid Waste, Coffee Grounds, and Biomass electric power plants that produce 5MW or more of electricity." Biomass currently includes: agricultural waste, sewer sludge, wood, wood chips, bark, paper, paper sludge, waste sugar cane, bagasse, peat, rice hulls, chicken litter, straw, and waste tires.

As the leading producer of power reports, we offer:

  • An independent voice.

  • A commitment to follow data through the life cycle of every alternative electric power plant in the world.

  • Multiple data points so purchasers of the raw data can take the database and manipulate it and customize it to meet their needs.

  • Basic bottoms up approach so that market share numbers can be verified."

  • Continually updated database with needs and feedback of our customers in mind.

  • Affordable reports because we have low overhead.

  • Focused 100% on our database and our reports to bring our customers the most accurate and useful information.

Solar Power Plant: Alternative Sources Of Energy For Growing Cities

Many huge cities spouted around the world in the past several years. These mega cities often require tremendous amount of energy to sustain its industries and households. In most cases, the source of energy of these mega cities is fossil fuels. Everyday, tremendous amounts of fossil fuels are burned in these areas. Since burning of fossil fuel can have great impact to the environment, many scientist and environmentalists strongly recommends the use of solar power plants as alternative sources of energy.

As a form of renewable resource, sunlight is considered as a cheap source of energy for the planet. Solar power plants can convert the heat of the sun into electricity. According to experts, the process of converting the sunlight into electricity is simple and very cost efficient. Yes, the initial investment required by a solar power plant may be quite high considering the number of solar panels and the amount space needed to set up these solar panels but the good news is that after the initial investment on, the solar power plant will now require minimal maintenance. Note that solar panels are usually made of modular and easily available and affordable materials, making it quite easy for the power plant owners to easily replace damaged solar panels. Moreover, the solar power plant is self-sufficient. As long as it can capture enough sunlight, you do not need any fuel inputs to generate energy. Furthermore, since the solar panels are built to last for a long time, you will have enough time to recover your initial investments on the solar power plant.

Solar power harnesses the suns heat and light emissions. It is the power we get from converting the suns energy. The energy of the sun is abundant, clean, and environmentally friendly. Every day, we receive more energy from the sun than the entire world could use in 27 years! solar power is highly renewable, as the energy from the sun is estimated to last another 4.5 billion years.

The basic difference between generation of solar power and the conventional power is:

Solar power doesn't need large, polluting power stations * Solar power can be generated at home and in industries * Once installed, there is no further need of any raw materials to generate solar power
Converting the Suns Energy

There are many different ways of converting the suns energy, in the form of light, into electricity. Photovoltaic cells, more commonly known as solar cells, are made of semi-conductors. These energy converters convert the energy in sunlight into electricity. Sunlight, which is a stream of energy particles–photons–falls on the semi-conductors or the conductors and transfers its energy to them. The photons transfer their energy as they hit the silicon atoms in the solar cells, thereby releasing the electrons from their orbit around the nucleus, generating electricity.

To help concentrate the sunlight on a small area of photovoltaic cells, Fresnel lenses, mirrors, and mirrored dishes are used as concentrators. A Fresnel lens consists of concentric rings of segmental lenses with a short focal length. Multiple solar cells are combined to make a solar panel. For protection of these solar cells, glass, with an anti-reflective coating, is used as a cover. Solar panels usually produce 12 or 24 volts of DC power.

Boiling Fluids - Mirrors or reflective surfaces are used to concentrate the suns energy onto a fluid reservoir. This leads to steam generation by boiling the fluid, which in turn spins a turbine to generate electricity. Using a turbine to generate electricity is similar to the conventional way of power generation, except that solar energy is used in place of non-renewable fossil fuels. Either DC or AC electric power can be generated using turbines.

Heat Engine - The heat engine, the most common one being a Stirling engine, has a gas- enclosed compartment. Through mirrors or reflective surfaces, the sunlight is concentrated on the engine, which heats the gas. This causes a piston to move, which runs the generator. The gas gets cooled and returns to go through the heating cycle again. These heat engines are silent. Depending on the generator, they can produce either DC or AC current.

How Hydropower Plants Work

Worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power. The world's hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. There are more than 2,000 hydropower plants operating in the United States, making hydropower the country's largest renewable energy source.

In this article, we'll take a look at how falling water creates energy and learn about the hydrologic cycle that creates the water flow essential for hydropower. You will also get a glimpse at one unique application of hydropower that may affect your daily life.

The Power of Water

Simple Beginnings
Use of hydropower peaked in the mid-20th century, but the idea of using water for power generation goes back thousands of years. A hydropower plant is basically an oversized water wheel.
More than 2,000 years ago, the Greeks are said to have used a water wheel for grinding wheat into flour. These ancient water wheels are like the turbines of today, spinning as a stream of water hits the blades. The gears of the wheel ground the wheat into flour.

When watching a river roll by, it's hard to imagine the force it's carrying. If you have ever been white-water rafting, then you've felt a small part of the river's power. White-water rapids are created as a river, carrying a large amount of water downhill, bottlenecks through a narrow passageway. As the river is forced through this opening, its flow quickens. Floods are another example of how much force a tremendous volume of water can have.
Hydropower plants harness water's energy and use simple mechanics to convert that energy into electricity. Hydropower plants are actually based on a rather simple concept -- water flowing through a dam turns a turbine, which turns a generator.

Here are the basic components of a conventional hydropower plant:

  • Dam - Most hydropower plants rely on a dam that holds back water, creating a large reservoir. Often, this reservoir is used as a recreational lake, such as Lake Roosevelt at the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State.

  • Intake - Gates on the dam open and gravity pulls the water through the penstock, a pipeline that leads to the turbine. Water builds up pressure as it flows through this pipe.

  • Turbine - The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which is attached to a generator above it by way of a shaft. The most common type of turbine for hydropower plants is the Francis Turbine, which looks like a big disc with curved blades. A turbine can weigh as much as 172 tons and turn at a rate of 90 revolutions per minute (rpm), according to the Foundation for Water & Energy Education (FWEE).

  • Generators - As the turbine blades turn, so do a series of magnets inside the generator. Giant magnets rotate past copper coils, producing alternating current (AC) by moving electrons. (You'll learn more about how the generator works later.)

  • Transformer - The transformer inside the powerhouse takes the AC and converts it to higher-voltage current.

  • Power lines - Out of every power plant come four wires: the three phases of power being produced simultaneously plus a neutral or ground common to all three. (Read How Power Distribution Grids Work to learn more about power line transmission.)

  • Outflow - Used water is carried through pipelines, called tailraces, and re-enters the river downstream.

SAPP is against dirty coal ...more

Coal's Assault on Human Health
Coal pollutants affect all major body organ systems and contribute to four of the five leading causes of mortality in the U.S.: heart disease, cancer, stroke, and chronic lower respiratory diseases. This conclusion emerges from our reassessment of the widely recognized health threats from coal. Each step of the coal lifecycle-mining, transportation, washing, combustion, and disposing of post combustion wastes-impacts human health. Coal combustion in particular contributes to diseases affecting large portions of the U.S. population, including asthma, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke, compounding the major public health challenges of our time. It interferes with lung development, increases the risk of heart attacks, and compromises intellectual capacity.

Oxidative stress and inflammation are indicated as possible mechanisms in the exacerbation and development of many of the diseases under review. In addition, the report addresses another, less widely recognized health threat from coal: the contribution of coal combustion to global warming, and the current and predicted health effects of global warming...more

State's sovereign rights on oil ....

Stop the Coal-fired Power Plant in Sandakan....

  • Destruction of famous tourist attraction sites

  • Sepilok Orang Utan Rehabilitation Centre

  • Kinabatangan Ramsar Site, Sukau Resorts

  • Island Resorts off Sandakan, Selingan Turtle Island...

SAPP Policies

SAPP's 17 point Manifesto - Sabah deserves better in terms of more equitable distribution of opportunities, in social, economic and infrastructural development and a better quality of life. [BM][Chinese]

SAPP's Economic Plan for Sabah - SAPP aims to achieve economic prosperity and financial self-reliance for Sabah. Version in [BM] [Chinese]

SAPP's Land Reform Policy - To promote and protect the rights and interests of local natives and other citizens in Sabah [BM][Chinese]

On Oil Royalty - SAPP is not giving up its struggle for more oil royalty payment for Sabah.

SAPP's Eight (8) Points Declaration - Whereas our mission is to establish a trustworthy govt and a progressive ...

SAPP's 14 point memo in 2006 - Time for Direct Preventive Actions

SAPP Constitution (booklet)

Our Sabah..

Books on ....
RCI Report on Immigrants in Sabah
The Birth of Malaysia
Malaysia Agreement Article 1-11
The Original Agreement of Malaysia
Heroes of Kinabalu 神山美烈誌
Schedule 9 of the Federal Constitution

more on ...
Twenty points safeguard
20 Perkara
Illegals & IC issues
Bernas Monopoly
No to coal-fired plant
Sabah Gas pipeline
3 million acres oil blocks ceded
The Formation of Msia & Devt in Sabah
Proclamation of Msia 1963...details
Restore Sabah's right to appoint JCs,
Ex-minister: Review 20-point
Supply Sarawak power to Sabah...
Sedition Act 1948
Continental Shelf Act 83 (1966)
Petroleum Development Act 144 (1974)
Petroleum Oil Agreement (1976)


SAPP bid to discuss Sabah claim rejected
Take action against anti-Malaysia elements
Call for Philippines Consulate in Sabah
Get the RM1 billion and solve the QEH debacle
SAPP's objection of coal-fired plants in Sabah
SAPP: Explain the RM 601 loan to KL company
The missing billion ringgit "special grant"
SAPP on SEDIA Bill 2009
SAPP supports the call for the abolishment of Cabotage Policy
Probe illegals having Mykad also
Political Autonomy for Sabah
Sabah Schools still awaiting share of RM30 million
Special fund: Eric wants ACA probe
Oil royalty: SAPP not giving up
Scrap Bernas monopoly on rice
More News in Search Archive.....

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